The non-finite moods include the infinitive mood (infinitif), the present participle (participe présent), and the past participle (participe passé). σπονδάς τε ἐποιησάμεθα [...] καὶ ἐτρεπόμεθα πρὸς τὸν πότον. The construction where an accusative noun or pronoun functions as the subject of an infinitive is called accusative and infinitive (See also the homonymous Latin construction accusativus cum infinitivo (ACI), which is the rule -in indirect speech- even in cases where verb and infinitive have co-referential subjects). This applies to the modal verbs (can, must, etc. For example: I want to run the bare infinitive does not have the word to.For example: I must go. This construction can be used as an indirect speech mechanism, in many instances interchangeable with a complementary declarative clause introduced by "ὅτι/"ὡς"[47][48] (or a supplementary participle). In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signalling modality. Of course, in such cases the infinitive has a subject of its own. Archaic or greatly restricted in usage by Middle Egyptian. ἐν τοῖς μυρίοις ἐν Μεγάλῃ πόλει πρὸς Ἱερώνυμον τὸν ὑπὲρ Φιλίππου λέγοντα ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἔφη, ἐγὼ [...] νομίζω αὐτὸν καὶ ἐφ' οἷς νυνὶ ποιεῖ δικαίως, εἰς τόπον τινὰ δαιμόνιον, ἐν ᾧ τῆς τε γῆς δύ', [τοὺς πονηροτάτους καὶ ἐξαγίστους ὀνομαζομένους τὰς συμφορὰς σωφρονίζειν] λέγουσιν, νομίζουσιν [τὴν αὑτῶν φύσιν ἱκανωτέραν εἶναι τῆς ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν προκριθείσης], ἐβούλοντο οὖν [δοκεῖν αὐτὸν [ἄκοντα καὶ μὴ ἑκόντα μηνύειν]], ὅπως πιστοτέρα ἡ μήνυσις φαίνοιτο. Hence sit and to sit, as used in the following sentences, would each be considered an infinitive: The form without to is called the bare infinitive; the form introduced by to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive. But the present infinitive represents either a present indicative or an imperfect one,[24] and a perfect infinitive either a perfect indicative or a pluperfect one. Thus to go is an infinitive, as is go in a sentence like "I must go there" (but not in "I go there", where it is a finite verb). ), verbs of will or desire not to do anything (δέδοικα/δέδια "fear to", φοβοῦμαι "be afraid to", ἀπέχομαι "abstain from doing", αἰσχύνομαι "be ashamed to", ἀπαγορεύω "forbid to", κωλύω "hinder, prevent" etc.) The mood of a verb indicates the way it is used in a sentence, and because verbs are words of action, the mood of a verb can affect the meaning of the entire sentence, as well as its grammatical construction. Infinitive (abbreviated INF) is a linguistics term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs. In German it is -en ("sagen"), with -eln or -ern endings on a few words based on -l or -r roots ("segeln", "ändern"). Archaic or greatly restricted in usage by Middle Egyptian. Spanish verbs form one of the more complex areas of Spanish grammar. The suffixes -mk and -sk later merged to -s, which evolved to -st in the western dialects. The name of that form of a verb which expresses simply the notion of the verb without predicating it of any subject. (For some irregular verbs the form of the infinitive coincides additionally with that of the past tense and/or past participle, like in the case of put. ", Huddleston and Pullum's Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002) does not use the notion of the "infinitive" ("there is no form in the English verb paradigm called 'the infinitive'"), only that of the infinitival clause, noting that English uses the same form of the verb, the plain form, in infinitival clauses that it uses in imperative and present-subjunctive clauses.[2]. This form is also invariable. Regarding English, the term "infinitive" is traditionally applied to the unmarked form of the verb (the "plain form") when it forms a non-finite verb, whether or not introduced by the particle to. [34][35] The same constructional alternation is available in English (declarative content clause -a that clause- or to-infinitive), as shown below. The infinitive in English. "to destroy" = λυειν). ), as well as certain related auxiliaries like the had of had better and the used of used to. Following certain verbs or prepositions, infinitives commonly do have an implicit subject, e.g.. As these examples illustrate, the implicit subject of the infinitive occurs in the objective case (them, him) in contrast to the nominative case that occurs with a finite verb, e.g., "They ate their dinner." Imperative mood can be denoted by the glossing abbreviation IMP. [as an adjective] Gram. Infinitive From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The infinitive is a verb form. The Infinitive Mood : Mood of A Verb Mood is that attribute of a verb by which it denotes the manner or way in which the assertion is expressed. As fas as the two first are concerned, traditionally this construction is sometimes called (in Latin terminology) dativus cum infinitivo or genitivus cum infinitivo (dative with the infinitive or genitive with the infinitive respectively) and is considered to be a case attraction,[65][66] the dative or genitive being used instead of a predicate in the accusative: ἄνδρα, ὡς προθυμότατον; see also below. Mood is only another form of the word mode and signifies manner or way. Bulgarian and Macedonian have lost the infinitive altogether except in a handful of frozen expressions where it is the same as the 3rd person singular aorist form. I want to tell you that Brett Favre is going to get married. Used mostly since Middle Egyptian. The loss or reduction of -a in active voice in Norwegian did not occur in the passive forms (-ast, -as), except for some dialects that have -es. Such accusative and infinitive constructions are present in Latin and Ancient Greek, as well as many modern languages. This may be done by inflection, as with the Latin perfect and passive infinitives, or by periphrasis (with the use of auxiliary verbs), as with the Latin future infinitives or the English perfect and progressive infinitives. (b) The form of the imperfect participle, called the infinitive in -ing; as, going is as easy as standing. As far as the dative is concerned, the choice between a word in concord with a dative and an accusative case seems to be laid down by the speaker's/writer's preference.[67]. When the infinitive is used as the direct object of a verb of speaking, thinking, perceiving, etc., the construction is called indirect discourse and the most important rule is the the subject of an infinitive in indirect discourse must always be stated (in the subject accusative construction). Details / edit. It also applies to the auxiliary do, like used in questions, negatives and emphasis like described under do-support. In all Romance languages, infinitives can also form nouns. the money back. Note: a "declarative" infinitive is sometimes the mood of subordinated clauses in indirect speech, instead of a corresponding indicative (either a realis or conditional irrealis one) or optative mood, in modal assimilation to the main infinitive used to represent the independent clause of the direct speech; so after relative, temporal or conditional conjunctions such as: ὃς "who" or ὅστις "whoever", ἐπεὶ or ἐπειδή "since, when", ὅτε "when", εἰ "if" etc. In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. [10][11] Traditionally they are said to be used not in indirect discourse and in indirect discourse respectively,[12] yet this terminology is misleading; for infinitives of both sorts may be used in indirect discourse transformations (for example one may say (a) "I said that he will undertake an expedition" or (b) "I advised him to undertake/that he should undertake an expedition", where indirect discourse, one way and another, is employed: direct discourse for (a) "He will undertake...", and for (b) "Undertake/you should undertake..."). Opposing linguistic theories typically do not consider the to-infinitive a distinct constituent, instead regarding the scope of the particle to as an entire verb phrase; thus, to buy a car is parsed like to [buy [a car]], not like [to buy] [a car]. Even in languages that have infinitives, similar constructions are sometimes necessary where English would allow the infinitive. The phenomenon is traditionally understood to be some kind of case attraction [56] (for a modern perspective and relevant modern terminology see also big PRO and little pro and control constructions). An infinitive of this kind denotes only aspect or stage of action, not actual tense,[13] and can be in any tense stem (mostly in the present and aorist (see also here), the perfect being rare enough) except the future one; only the verb μέλλω "I am about to" may exceptionally take a dynamic future infinitive. For example, Spanish al abrir yo los ojos ("when I opened my eyes") or sin yo saberlo ("without my knowing about it").[4][5]. [51] Yet it can be also in use with any infinitival use, no matter whether indirect speech is involved or not. The Latin imperative is formed by removing the -re ending of the present infinitive. The original Proto-Germanic ending of the infinitive was -an, with verbs derived from other words ending in -jan or -janan. For the difference between the present and aorist dynamic infinitive see the discussion in the above section. The infinitive is a verb form. For further detail and examples of the uses of infinitives in English, see Bare infinitive and To-infinitive in the article on uses of English verb forms. The infinitive in Russian usually ends in -t’ (ть) preceded by a thematic vowel, or -ti (ти), if not preceded by one; some verbs have a stem ending in a consonant and change the t to č’, like *mogt’ → moč’ (*могть → мочь) "can". In Dutch infinitives also end in -en (zeggen — to say), sometimes used with te similar to English to, e.g., "Het is niet moeilijk te begrijpen" → "It is not hard to understand." German infinitives can form nouns, often expressing abstractions of the action, in which case they are of neuter gender: das Essen means the eating, but also the food. It is preceded by the neuter singular article (τό, τοῦ, τῷ, τό) and has the character and function of both a noun and a verbal form. [14], The difference between the present and the aorist infinitive of this sort is aspect or stage of action, not the tense —despite their tense stem, such infinitives always have a future reference, because of the volitive meaning of their governing verb. Verbs that usually have a future reference, such as ὄμνυμι "swear", ὑπισχνοῦμαι "promise", ἐλπίζω "expect, hope", ἀπειλέω "threaten", προσδοκάω "expect" etc., either take the declarative infinitive (mostly the future, but less often some of them also take the present, aorist or perfect infinitive, even the infinitive with the particle ἄν representing a potential optative or indicative), and in this case indirect discourse is employed, or they are followed by the dynamic aorist (less often the present) infinitive, and they are constructed just like any verb of will, desire etc. and it is usually used in oratio obliqua (in indirect speech or indirect discourse). 'to sit'. For example, avoir mangé means "(to) have eaten" in French. The infinitive nevertheless remains the dictionary form. "I want that I write a book", with a verb in the subjunctive mood) or urīdu kitābata kitābin (lit. It is one of the irrealis moods. Many verb forms known as infinitives differ from gerunds (verbal nouns) in that they do not inflect for case or occur in adpositional phrases. In Spanish and Portuguese, infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir (Spanish also has reflexive forms in -arse, -erse, -irse), while similarly in French they typically end in -re, -er, oir, and -ir. In Spanish and Portuguese, infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir (Spanish also has reflexive forms in -arse, -erse, -irse), while similarly in French they typically end in -re, -er, oir, and -ir. Imperative Mood . The few verbs with stems ending in -a have infinitives in -n (gaan — to go, slaan — to hit). To write…. ), that form of the verb which merely names the action, and performs the office of a verbal noun. 187ff. Infinitive mood (Gram. Note, however, that the to-infinitive of Hebrew is not the dictionary form; that is the third person singular past form. After a modal verb you must use an infinitive. The conditional mood is made from the auxiliary verb would (also should with I and we) and the infinitive of the other verb without to. Note: there are certain cases where the subject of the infinitive, whether of the declarative or the dynamic type, is put in accusative case, eventhough it is co-referent with the subject of the main verb; in this mechanism emphasis or contrast is present. The Finnish grammatical tradition includes many non-finite forms that are generally labeled as (numbered) infinitives although many of these are functionally converbs. Some grammarians make two forms in English: (a) The simple form, as, speak, go, hear, before which to is commonly placed, as, to speak; to go; to hear. So an embedded participial clause like φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοί "claiming that they are wise" or οἱ φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοί "Those who claim that they are wise" is declined this way -in any of the following word ordering, but in slightly different each time meaning (see topicalization and focusing): In the above phrasal structuring the predicate adjective σοφοὶ "wise" is always put in the case of its governing participle φάσκοντες "claiming". Madvig, J.N., Syntax der griechishen Sprache, besonders der attishen Sprachform, für Shulen. The infinitive in subordinate clauses introduced by conjunctions, Subject omitted and understood in an oblique case (genitive, dative or accusative), ὁρῶντες πλουσιωτέρους γιγνομένους τοὺς δικαίους τῶν ἀδίκων πολλοὶ καὶ φιλοκερδεῖς ὄντες εὖ μάλα ἐπιμένουσι, Ὦ ἄνδρες βουλευταί, εἰ μέν τις ὑμῶν νομίζει πλείους τοῦ καιροῦ. As a noun phrase, expressing its action or state in an abstract, general way, forming the, As a modifier of a noun or adjective. For example, in Italian infinitives end in -are, -ere, -rre (rare), or -ire (which is still identical to the Latin forms), and in -arsi, -ersi, -rsi, -irsi for the reflexive forms. Moreover, the unmarked form of the verb is not considered an infinitive when it forms a finite verb: like a present indicative ("I sit every day"), subjunctive ("I suggest that he sit"), or imperative ("Sit down!"). … The syntax and semantics of the verb in classical Greek. either, although some degree of inflection sometimes occurs; for example Latin has distinct active and passive infinitives. However, the auxiliary verbs have (used to form the perfect) and be (used to form the passive voice and continuous aspect) both commonly appear in the infinitive: "I should have finished by now"; "It's thought to have been a burial site"; "Let him be released"; "I hope to be working tomorrow. In Romanian, the infinitive is usually replaced by a clause containing the conjunction să plus the subjunctive mood. consonant elision takes place if applicable, e.g.. assimilation of clusters violating sonority hierarchy if applicable, e.g.. 't' weakens to 'd' after diphthongs, e.g., The second infinitive is formed by replacing the final, A personal suffix can then be added to this form to indicate the, This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 00:57. An infinitive phrase is a verb phrase constructed with the verb in infinitive form. A matter of controversy among prescriptive grammarians and style writers has been the appropriateness of separating the two words of the to-infinitive (as in "I expect to happily sit here"). In English, an infinitive verb is expressed using the word "to" before the verb (e.g. The infinitive without the article is of two sorts and has two discrete uses: the dynamic infinitive and the declarative infinitive. The use of zu with infinitives is similar to English to, but is less frequent than in English. As far as the genitive is concerned, a predicate substantive or a participle normally stands in the accusative while an adjective may stand either in accusative or in genitive case. 4. Other Romance languages (including Spanish, Romanian, Catalan, and some Italian dialects) allow uninflected infinitives to combine with overt nominative subjects. or an adverbial use (e.g. the full infinitive (to-infinitive) has the word to at the beginning. Such imperatives imply a second-person subject, but some other languages also have first- and third-person imperatives, with the meaning of "let's " or "let them ". 1847, J. J. P. Le Brethon and L. Sandier, Guide to the French language; especially devised for persons who wish to study that language without the assistance of a teacher. that form of the verb which merely names the action, and performs the office of a verbal noun. Instead, they use finite verb forms in ordinary clauses or various special constructions. The University of Chicago Press, 2006, pp. e.g. (grammar) the infinitive mood or mode (a grammatical mood) 1.1. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. An example: When the subject of the infinitive is identical (coreferential) with the subject of the governing verb, then normally it is omitted and understood in the nominative case. Yet in the last two examples another reading is also possible, considering ἀποδιδόναι and ἀποδοῦναι to be present and aorist declarative infinitive respectively: "I swear that I give (always, or in any relevant situation etc.) A so-called dynamic infinitive may be governed by verbs of will or desire to do something (ἐθέλω or βούλομαι "to be willing, wish to", εὔχομαι "pray, wish for", κατεύχομαι "pray against, imprecate curse to", αἱροῦμαι "choose, prefer to", μέλλω "to be about to, or: delay to", κελεύω "urge, command to", ἐπιτάσσω "order to", ψηφίζομαι "vote to", ἐῶ "allow to", δέομαι "beg to" etc. The infinitive mood of a verb gives it its name: gra&fein to write. (Infinitives are negated by simply preceding them with not. Normally, the Latin imperative mood expresses direct commands (orders) like "Go to sleep!" The Seri language of northwestern Mexico has infinitival forms used in two constructions (with the verb meaning 'want' and with the verb meaning 'be able'). 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Sung/Are going to sing '' could be translated to `` apesar de cantares/teres cantado/ires cantar '' spanish grammar with.! Unlimited '' infinitive through a clause containing the conjunction să plus the subjunctive and periphrastic prospective mostly... Sing/Have sung/are going to get married ordinary clauses or various special constructions infinitus meaning `` unlimited '' nature more. Navigation Jump to search of inflection sometimes occurs ; for example, in such cases the infinitive without article... Imperative mood is a verb used in Old Egyptian ; archaic by Middle Egyptian the! [... ] καὶ ἐτρεπόμεθα πρὸς τὸν πότον mood that forms a command or request unlimited! Aspect rather than phrases this becomes θέλω να γράψω “ I want that I write a book '', or... '' translates to Je veux venir, using the infinitive was -an, with or the!